Foundation Morals and Ethics:
Philosophers on Moral Law

The Old Testament era sacred writings are the most widely recognized basis of Western ethics and morality. Yet, to this we must add the distillation of the ancient philosophers on moral law. By combining the logical-intellectual philosophers with the mystics' emotional and devotional approach, we can more clearly discern the roots of our sometimes paradoxical belief system.

As we study the scanty historical records of the philosophers' lives, beliefs and teachings, we find that the search for meaning in life has always led man to examine the nature of morality as an essential element in how we interact with the universe. We know that an objective standard of conduct does exist.

We know that an objective standard of conduct
does exist.

We call this standard the moral imperative, which is our personal compulsion to right action, arising from the voice of conscience or the sense of right and wrong, which varies from soul to soul. This soul influence has led the honorable leaders of every civilization to establish an ethical standard of conduct and behavior, a moral compass.

Whenever and wherever evil, hedonism and moral relativism have subverted our moral and ethical standards, the result is decadence and decline in that culture. Plato wrote of this issue in the Protagoras dialogue. The dilution of ethical standards by the cancer of moral relativism always greases the slide into immorality, and mob rule, posing as democracy, and barbarism results.

To see the proofs of this, witness the final decadence and fall of the Greek democracies; witness the decline and fall of the Roman Republic into demagoguery and dissipation; witness the slide of Europe and the Christian West into the brutality of the Dark Ages. Finally, view the rising tide of moral relativism and secular humanism in the Western cultures and nations, and understand that the barbarism of unenlightenment stands at our gates today.

We invite you to explore the thoughts and contributions of the Masters of Philosophy that we have assembled here. It is only the barest minimum to start, but if we spark the interest of a single soul to grow and know more, we shall have succeeded in our intent.

We include references to provide a reading guide, and have recommended texts for more in-depth study of these great minds and avenues of interest. Never, never, never cease to learn, and you can be assured that your God-given mind will never be closed to Truth.


The Evolution of Human Thought: Dr. Thomas Parker Boyd and Edna Lister shared and taught this lecture series during their active partnership in the Society of the Healing Christ. It serves as an introduction and commentary on the philosophers whose works we regard as seminal to Western and Christian thinking.
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The Seven Sages of Greece were and are famed for their pithy insights, wisdom distilled into aphorisms, which have come down to us as "conventional wisdom." Of the seven, only Thales of Miletus, whom Aristotle called the first philosopher, is recognized as a mathematician. The others were politicians, masters of rhetoric, the art of human dialogue. All of them are fascinating.
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Pythagoras of Samos stands in a class all his own. Often described as the first "pure mathematician," his philosophy was grounded in the beauty of numerical logic. He considered the subjects of goodness and justice to be his personal business, and spent much time pondering and teaching them with his mathematical research.
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Socrates of Athens, the "gadfly of Athens," himself authored nothing, but was immortalized by his successor, Plato, in his dialogues, and to a lesser degree by Xenophon. He is viewed as one of the fathers of Western philosophy, best known for his questioning method known as elenchus. Socrates' contributions to the fields of ethics and epistemology are unparallelled.
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Plato of Athens was much more than Socrates' successor, for without him, we would know very little of Socrates' intellectual legacy. Plato was the father of Idealism, and founded the Academy in Athens in 387 BC, which lasted in various forms until the emperor Justinian closed it in 529 AD. Alfred North Whitehead said, "The safest general characterisation of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato."
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Aristotle of Stagira, the ancient Greek philosopher, scientist and student of Plato, is one of the greatest intellectual figures of Western history. He made major contributions to the fields of logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre.
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Plotinus of Lycopolis: Plotinus (204/5-270 C.E.), is generally regarded as the founder of Neoplatonism, and is one of the most influential philosophers in antiquity after Plato and Aristotle.
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